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Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis: a case series

Authors: Lier M1, Malik RF1, van Waesberghe J2, Maas JW3, van Rumpt-van de Geest DA4, Coppus SF5, Berger JP6, van Rijn BB7,8, Janssen PF9, de Boer MA10, de Vries J10, Jansen FW11, Brosens IA, Lambalk CB, Mijatovic V
Publication date: 20170108
Journal: BJOG. 2017 Jan;124(2):306-312
DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14371

OBJECTIVE:

To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis.

DESIGN:

Retrospective case note review.

SETTING:

Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis.

SAMPLE:

Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP.

METHODS:

In collaboration with the Dutch Working Group on Endometriosis, unpublished cases of SHiP that occurred in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2015 were retrieved.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.

RESULTS:

SHiP occurred predominantly in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The earliest and major presenting symptom was an acute onset of abdominal pain, often combined with low haemoglobin levels or signs of fetal distress. Imaging was a diagnostic tool when free peritoneal fluid could be observed. For surgical treatment of the bleeding site, a midline laparotomy was mostly needed, the median estimated amount of blood loss was 2000 mL. No fetomaternal or perinatal mortality was reported, despite a high rate of preterm births (54.5%). In all women, endometriosis was diagnosed at a certain moment in time and therefore was probably involved in the pathogenesis of SHiP. Four women showed recurrence of SHiP. In one of these cases the second event of SHiP occurred in a subsequent pregnancy.

CONCLUSION:

Pregnancy outcomes of SHiP are improving when compared with previous reports, with absent fetomaternal and perinatal mortality in this recent series. Growing knowledge and adequate multidisciplinary intervention may have contributed to these favourable results. Increasing awareness of this serious complication of pregnancy is advocated, especially in women diagnosed with endometriosis.

TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:

Growing awareness of SHiP is advocated, especially in women diagnosed with endometriosis.

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